The Matter which matters

Smruti Rekha
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Isn't it stunning that the more we try to solve the mysteries of the universe, the more mysterious it gets?
We are carving our ways through this ubiquitous tangled maze. Getting the exact origin and the end of it is far beyond our capabilities. We hope that the path we choose does not come out to be an appearance that is wittingly deluding us. But there always have been some wise men who have an exceptional intellectual ability to solve the philosophies of this intriguing, never ending yet beguiling maze. However ironically, no cognitive being has ever been able to unravel the unlimited expense of this macrosmas. These intellectuals have somewhat made our perceptions clear. Einstein's theory of relativity has explained how the unseeable force of gravity is just a wrapping of space and time in the presence of matter and time. There was a question in the minds of the people after the discovery of gravity,that of the total gravitational force measured in the universe, about 85% of it is due to matter which is invisible and we can't interact with it. Until one day a Swiss-American scientist named Fritz Zwicky, while working in the California Institute of Technology, obtained this evidence of this unseen mass and called it DunkleMaterie.

He observed the Coma Cluster. It is around 300 million light-years from Earth. Zwicky after observing the galaxies of the Coma Cluster discovered that their average velocity is more than their escape velocity. He deduced that these galaxies would have broken up the group. He estimated the cluster had about 400 times more mass than was visually observable. The gravity effect of the visible galaxies was far too small for such fast orbits, thus mass must be hidden from view.

These dark matters don't absorb, emit or reflect light i.e, they don't interact with EM radiation, thus they are hard to detect. Although this dark matter doesn't interact with EM waves, they have the capability of interacting with the gravitational force. Dark matter is essential for our existence, without it the universe could have never been so beautiful. Can you imagine a universe without stars and galaxies? The universe could have been like that. We exist because of this dark matter. This dark matter was created with the visible matter after the big bang. Around 3.8 lakh years later, when the atomic particles were formed the universe was hot and dense. As the universe expanded with time it became less dense and less hot. Gravity pulled more and more mass and thus there were galaxies and stars formed. There are two contending forces, the expansion which wants to part these clusters and gravity which wants to bind them. Until now after the big bang, the galaxies could have flown apart because of the expansion. Surely the visible matter accounts for very less gravitational force. There is a cosmic ghost with which we can't interact but know their effects.

Without this unseen mass, the universe would have scattered and fainted light. The gravity of the visible particles is not strong enough to form complex celestial structures. The stability of the universe is due to this dark matter. It helps in balancing the gravitational forces between two bodies and maintains the orbital path followed. The big bang didn't produce matter and antimatter equally. If we observe the universe then matter produced is slightly greater than antimatter produced. It is not in the form of dark clouds of baryons. It is not antimatter either. The nature of dark matter is still a mystery that is incomprehensible for astrophysicists.